Location Based Service in Cellular Networks: from GSM to 5G NR
This exciting new book delivers a comprehensive overview of the cellular network architecture, with focus on the positioning applications and emergency call services, and covers aspects brought by 5G, including the core virtualization and the network slicing to optimize cellular network deployments. Focus is given to the different positioning technologies used in cellular networks, divided in satellite positioning, terrestrial radio positioning, non-RF positioning and a brief introduction to sensor fusion and Bayesian theory. It provides an overview of all the positioning technologies used in cellular networks, from GSM to 5G, from RAT independent technologies, such as A-GNSS (including GNSS evolution, RTK and PPP), WiFi, Bluetooth and sensor fusion, to cellular network native technologies, such as OTDOA / DL-TDOA, ECID, multi-cell RTT and the Angle Of Arrival (AOA) based techniques that take advantage of 5G mmWave beamforming features. Different positioning protocols, especially the LTE Positioning Protocol (LPP), which is used for LTE and 5G NR and defines the communication between the user device (mobile phone, connected vehicle, etc.) and the base station are explained extensively, and compares it with other competing protocols such as OMA LPPE. Furthermore, it also explains the core network positioning protocols (LPPa, NRPPa), that describe the communication between the location server and the core network. Explanation of different signaling parameters will enable the reader to understand better how positioning works in a cellular network. The contents of this book are aimed at all types of users, from beginners to the concept of positioning to experts that are looking to enhance their knowledge of positioning in cellular networks.